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Lifesaving Theory

Definition of Water Safety 

Knowledge to prevent and avoid water related accident. eg drowning

Example of Water Safety: The do and don't in the swimming pool or open water area
  • no running around swimming pool
  • swim with proper attire
  • no swimming during bad weather
  • no pushing
  • no horse riding
  • no diving at shallow pool
  • if you are a non/weak swimmer swim at the training pool
etc....

Four different types of Casualty

Non-Swimmer

Weak-Swimmer

Injured Person

Unconscious  Person

Principles of Water Rescue (6A's)

Recognition of an Emergency (Alert)

Acceptance of Responsibility

Assessment

Plan of Action (Action Plan)

Action

EmergencyCare (After care)

Rescue Ladder

Talk

Reach

Throw

Wade

Row

Swim

Tow

Calling for help

Ambulance hotline: 995 (Ambulance come from Singapore Civil Defense Force)

Police: 999

Lifesaving 3 treatment for secondary injuries

Emergency  Care

What is Cramp?

Involuntary contraction of a muscle, or a group of muscle.


Treatment of Cramp

Stretch and Massage the affected muscle



Shock


Define Shock
State of collapse of blood circulation, inadequate oxygen supply to vital organs.


Causes of Shock: severe bleeding, severe burn, allergy, near drowning


Signs and Symptoms Cold and Sweating, Pale, Rapid and Weak pulse, Fast and Shallow  breathing


Treatment of Shock


  1. Treat the underlying causes
  2. Raise leg above heart level
  3. Keep casualty warm  by covering the casualty with blanket
  4. Seek medical help 995 ambulance

Treatment of Bleeding: R.I.C.E


Rest

I immobile  the injured area

Compression  using :direct pressure

Elevate injury parts above Heart level

Three Factors to control Nose Bleeding
1) lean forward
2) pinch brig of the nose
3) apply cold compression on forehead